Ngữ pháp bài 6

I/ TỪ VỰNG

たべます : Ăn

のみます : uống

すいます : hút 「たばこをすいます」 : hút thuốc

みます <mimasu> : xem
ききます <kikimasu> : nghe
よみます <yomimasu> : đọc
かきます <kakimasu> :viết, vẽ
かいます <kaimasu> : mua
とります <torimasu> : chụp
「しゃしんをとります」 <shashin o torimasu> : chụp hình
します <shimasu> : làm, chơi
あいます <aimasu> : gặp
「ともだちにあいます」 <tomodachi ni aimasu> : gặp bạn
ごはん <gohan> : cơm
あさごはん <asagohan> : bữa sáng
ひるごはん <hirugohan> : bữa trưa
ばんごはん <bangohan> : bữa tối
パン <PAN> : bánh mì
たまご <tamago> : trứng
にく <niku> : thịt
さかな <sakana> : cá
やさい <yasai> : rau
くだもの <kudamono> : trái cây
みず <mizu> : nước
おちゃ <ocha> : trà
こうちゃ <koucha> : hồng trà
ぎゅうにゅう <gyuunyuu> : sữa
ミルク <MIRUKU> : sữa
ジュース <JU-SU> : nước trái cây
ビール <BI-RU> : bia
(お)さけ <(o)sake> : rượu sake
サッカー <SAKKA-> : bóng đá
テニス <TENISU> : tenis
CD <CD> : đĩa CD
ビデオ <BIDEO> : băng video
なに <nani> : cái gì
それから <sorekara> : sau đó
ちょっと <chotto> : một chút
みせ <mise> : tiệm, quán
レストラン <RESUTORAN> : nhà hàng
てがみ <tegami> : thư
レポート <REPO-TO> : bài báo cáo
ときどき <tokidoki> : thỉnh thoảng
いつも <itsumo> : thường, lúc nào cũng
いっしょに <ishshoni> : cùng nhau
いいですね <iidesune> : được, tốt nhỉ
ええ <ee> : vâng
こうえん <kouen> : công viên
なんですか <nandesuka> : cái gì vậy ?
(お)はなみ <(o)hanami> : việc ngắm hoa
おおさかじょうこうえん <oosakajoukouen> : tên công viên
わかりました <wakarimashita> : hiểu rồi
じゃ、また <ja, mata> : hẹn gặp lại

II/ NGỮ PHÁP – MẪU CÂU

1/ Ngữ Pháp : いつも<itsumo> ( Lúc nào cũng….. )
Dùng ở thì hiện tại, chỉ một thói quen thường xuyên.
Cấu trúc :
( thời gian ) + Chủ ngữ + は<wa> + いつも<itsumo> + なに<nani>, どこ<doko> + を<o>, へ<e> + động từ
Ví dụ : わたしはいつもごぜんろくじにあさごはんをたべます。
<watashi wa itsumo asagohan o tabemasu>
( Tôi thì lúc nào cũng ăn bữa sáng lúc 6h sáng )
Lưu ý : Có thể thêm vào các yếu tố như : với ai, ở đâu… cho câu thêm phong phú.
Ví dụ : わたしはいつもともだちとPhan Đình Phùngクラズでサッカーをします。
<watashi wa itsumo tomodachi to Phan Đình Phùng KURAZU de SAKKA- o shimasu>
(Tôi thì lúc nào cũng chơi đá banh với bạn bè ở câu lạc bộ Phan Đình Phùng)

2/ Ngữ Pháp : いっしょに<ishshoni> (Cùng nhau)
Dùng để mời một ai đó làm việc gì cùng với mình.
Cấu trúc :
Câu hỏi : (thời gian) + Chủ ngữ + は<wa> + いっしょに<ishshoni> + nơi chốn + で <de> + なに<nani>; どこ<doko> + を<o>; へ<e>; に<ni> + Động từ + ませんか<masen ka>
Câu trả lời :
Đồng ý : ええ<ee>, động từ + ましょう<mashou>
Không đồng ý : V + ません<masen> (ちょっと….<chotto….>
Ví dụ :  あしたわたしはいっしょにレストランでひるごはんをたべませんか
<ashita watashi wa ishshoni RESUTORAN de hirugohan o tabemasen ka>
(Ngày mai tôi với bạn cùng đi ăn trưa ở nhà hàng nhé? )
Đồng ý : ええ、たべましょう
<ee, tabamashou><Vâng, được thôi>
Không đồng ý : たべません(ちょっと…)
<tabemasen, (chotto….)>
[Không được (vì gì đó….)]
Lưu ý : Cũng có thể thêm vào các yếu tố như : với ai, ở đâu… cho câu thêm phong phú.

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