Ngữ pháp bài 5

 I.TỪ VỰNG

いきます : đi

きます : đến

かえります : trở về

がっこう : trường học

スーパー <SU-PA-> : siêu thị
えき <eki> : nhà ga
ひこうき <hikouki> : máy bay
ふね <fune> : thuyền/tàu
でんしゃ <densha> : xe điện
ちかてつ <chikatetsu> : xe điện ngầm
しんかんせん <shinkansen> : tàu cao tốc
バス <BASU> : xe buýt
タクシー <TAKUSHI-> : xe taxi
じてんしゃ <jidensha> : xe đạp
あるいて(いきます) <aruite> <(ikimasu)> : đi bộ
ひと <hito> : người
ともだち <tomodachi> : bạn
かれ <kare> : anh ấy
かのじょ <kanojo> : cô ấy
かぞく <kazoku> : gia đình
ひとりで <hitoride> : một mình
せんしゅう <senshuu> : tuần truớc
こんしゅう <konshuu> : tuần này
らいしゅう <raishuu> : tuần tới
せんげつ <sengetsu> : tháng trước
こんげつ <kongetsu> : tháng này
らいげつ <raigetsu> : tháng tới
きょねん <kyonen> : năm rồi
ことし <kotoshi> : năm nay
らいねん <rainen> : năm tới
~がつ <~gatsu> : tháng ~
なんがつ <nangatsu> : tháng mấy
いちにち <ichinichi> : một ngày
なんにち <nannichi> : ngày mấy
いつ <itsu> : khi nào
たんじょうび <tanjoubi> : sinh nhật
ふつう <futsu> : thông thường
きゅうこう <kyuukou> : tốc hành
とっきゅう <totsukyuu> : hỏa tốc
つぎの <tsugino> : kế tiếp
ありがとう ございました <arigatou gozaimashita> : cám ơn
どう いたしまして <dou itashimashite> : không có chi
~ばんせん <~bansen> : tuyến thứ ~

II. MẪU CÂU

Mẫu Câu 1

Cấu trúc :
__はなにをしますか
<__wa nani o shimasuka>
Ví dụ : あなたはなにをしますか
<anata wa nani o shimasuka>
(Bạn đang làm gì đó ?)
わたしはてがみをかきます
<watashi wa tegami o kakimasu>
(Tôi đang viết thư)
Cách dùng : Dùng để hỏi ai đó đang làm gì

Mẫu Câu 2

Cấu trúc :
__はだれとなにをしますか
<__wa dare to nani o shimasuka>
Ví dụ : Aさんはともだちとなにをしますか
<A san wa tomodachi to nani o shimasuka>
(A đang làm gì với bạn vậy)
Aさんはともだちとサッカーをします
<A san wa tomodachi to satsuka- o shimasu>
(A đang chơi đá banh với bạn)
Cách dùng : Dùng để hỏi người nào đó đang làm gì với ai

Mẫu Câu 3

Cấu trúc :
__はどこでなにをしますか
<__wa doko de nani o shimasu ka>
Ví dụ : Bさんはこうえんでなにをしますか
<B san wa kouen de nani o shimasu ka>
(B đang làm gì ở công viên vậy ?)
Bさんはこうえんでテニスをします
<B san wa kouen de TENISU o shimasu>
(B đang chơi tenis ở công viên)
Cách dùng : Dùng để hỏi một người nào đó đang làm gì ở một nơi nào đó.

Mẫu Câu 4

Cấu trúc :
__だれとなんでどこへいきます
<__dare to nan de doko e ikimasu>
Ví dụ : わたしはこいびととでんしゃでこうえんへいきます
<watashi wa koibito to densha de kouen e ikimasu>
(Tôi cùng với người yêu đi xe điện đến công viên) (^_^)
Cách dùng : Dùng để nói một người nào đó cùng với ai, đi đến đâu bằng phương tiện gì.

Mẫu Câu 5

Cấu trúc :
__はなにをVましたか
<__ wa nani o Vmashita ka>
Ví dụ : きのうあなたはえいがをみましたか
<kinou anata wa eiga o mimashitaka>
(Ngày hôm qua bạn có xem phim không ?)
はい、みました
<hai, mimashita>
(Có)
いいえ、みませんでした
<iie, mimasendeshita>
(Không)
Cách dùng : Đây là dạng câu hỏi có, không để hỏi ai về một vấn đề gì đó.
Dĩ nhiên là trong các mẫu câu trên các bạn có thể thêm vào thời gian cho phù hợp với câu và động từ.

Ghi chú :
だれ <dare> : ai
どこ <doko> : ở đâu
なに <nani> : cái gì (dùng cho danh từ)
なん <nan> : cái gì (dùng cho động từ)
どうし <doushi> : động từ
します <shimasu> : chơi, làm

Phụ chú :
Các thể trong động từ :
a) Thể khẳng định
Đuôi của động từ là ます<masu>
Ví dụ : いきます<ikimasu>
かえります <kaerimasu>
b) Thể phủ định
Đuôi của động từ là ません <masen>
Ví dụ : いきません <ikimasen>
かえりません <kaerimasen>
c) Thể nghi vấn
Thêm từ か <ka> vào sau động từ
Ví dụ : みますか<mimasuka> : Có xem không ?
d) Thể khẳng định trong quá khứ
Đuôi của động từ là ました<mashita>
Ví dụ : みました<mimashita> : Đã xem rồi
e) Thể phủ định trong quá khứ
Đuôi của động từ là ませんでした<masendeshita>
Ví dụ : みませんでした<mimasendeshita> : Đã không xem
f) Thể nghi vấn trong quá khứ
Như thể nghi vấn của động từ ở hiện tại
Ví dụ : みましたか<mimashitaka> : Có xem không (trong quá khứ ?)
Chú ý : trong câu khẳng định và nghi vấn có động từ không dùng です <desu>ở cuối câu, です <desu> chỉ dùng cho danh từ.

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